Wednesday, December 17, 2008
The battle of Chalcedon was a combined land and sea battle at the start of the Third Mithridatic War that ended in a crushing victory for Mithridates VI of Pontus.
The siege of Cyzicus (73 B.C.) was a Roman victory that effectively ended Mithridates VI's campaign in western Asia Minor at the start of the Third Mithridatic War.
The battle of the Rhyndacis of 73 B.C. was the first of a series of disasters that befell the army of Mithridates VI of Pontus when it attempted to retreat from the siege of Cyzicus (Third Mithridatic War).
The siege of Eupatoria (c.72-71 B.C.) was one of the shorter sieges during the Roman general Lucullus's invasion of Pontus (Third Mithridatic War).
The battle of Tigranocerta, 6 or 7 October 69 B.C., was a one-sided Roman victory over a massive army led by Tigranes I of Armenia, but one that the Romans were unable to take advantage of.
Sunday, December 14, 2008
Marcus Varius was a Roman renegade and support of the rebel governor of Spain Sertorius who fought on the Pontic side during the Third Mithridatic War.
The battle of the Halys River was the only major engagement during the short Second Mithridatic War (83-82 B.C.) and was one of the few defeats suffered by a Roman army during the three wars against Mithridates IV of Pontus.
The battle of Lemnos of 73 B.C. was a naval victory won by Lucius Licinius Lucullus early in the Third Mithridatic War over a Pontic fleet commanded by the Roman renegade Marcus Varius.
Thursday, December 11, 2008
The battle of the Amnias River (89 B.C.) was the first battle of the First Mithridatic War, and was the first of a series of victories in which the armies of Mithridates VI conquered the Roman province of Asia.
The battle of Protopachium, 89 B.C., was the second of two victories won by the armies of Mithridates VI of Pontus that at least temporarily destroyed Roman authority in their province of Asia at the start of the First Mithridatic War.
The siege of Rhodes of 88 B.C. was one of the first defeats suffered by Mithridates VI of Pontus in the early period of the First Mithridatic War against Rome.
The siege of Athens of 87-86 B.C. was one of the first major Roman successes during the First Mithridatic War (89-85 B.C.), and marked the point at which the initiative in the war began to move towards the Romans.
The siege of Piraeus of 87-86 B.C. was a bitterly fought clash that only ended when the defenders of the city pulled out by sea after the fall of the city of Athens.
The battle of Chaeornea (86 B.C.) was the first of two crushing defeats suffered by Pontic armies that ended Mithridates VI's invasion of Greece (First Mithridatic War).
The battle of Orchomenus of 86 B.C. was the second of two great Roman victories that ended the Pontic invasion of Greece during the First Mithridatic War.
Archelaus was the most prominent Pontic general during the First Mithridatic War (89-85 B.C.), fought between the forces of Mithridates VI of Pontus and the Roman Republic.
Neoptolemus was a Pontic admiral and general of the First Mithridatic War, responsible for early victories over the Romans and their allies, but who lost a key naval battle that effectively ended the war.
Manius Aquillius (died 89/88 B.C.) was a Roman consul and general who successfully crushed a major slave uprising on Sicily before suffering defeat and a painful death at the start of the First Mithridatic War.
Monday, December 08, 2008
The Aichi E12A was a two-seat twin-float reconnaissance floatplane designed in response to a Japanese Navy 12-Shi specification issued in 1937 for an aircraft to replace the Kawanishi E7K2 three-seat reconnaissance seaplane.
The Aichi E13A 'Jake' Navy Type 0 Reconnaissance Seaplane was the most important Japanese floatplane of the Second World War.
The Aichi E16A Zuiun 'Paul' was a floatplane reconnaissance aircraft and dive bomber designed to replace the E13A 'Jake' on the cruisers and battleships of the Imperial Japanese Navy.
The Aichi M6A Seiran is the only aircraft to have been designed as a submarine-based attack aircraft and to have entered service, although its only military operation was ended prematurely by the end of the Second World War.
Thursday, December 04, 2008
The Mitsubishi G1M1 was a designation given retrospectively to the sole Mitsubishi Ka.9, the first prototype in the series of aircraft that would enter service as the G3M ‘Nell’.
The Mitsubishi G3M Type 96 Attack Bomber 'Nell' was the Japanese Navy’s main land based torpedo and high level bomber in the years before the start of the Pacific War. Although it was in the process of being replaced by the G4M ‘Betty’ at the end of 1941 the 'Nell' stilled played a major part in the early Japanese conquests in Malaya and the Pacific.
The Mitsubishi G3M1 Model 11 was the first production version of the Navy Type 96 Attack Bomber, powered by the same Mitsubishi Kinsei 3 engines as the fourth and eleventh prototypes.
The Mitsubishi G3M2 was the main production version of the G3M Navy Type 96 Attack Bomber. It was produced in two models – the Model 21, which differed from the G3M1 mainly in having more powerful engines, and the Model 22 which also carried heavier defensive armament.
The Mitsubishi G3M3 Model 23 was the final version of the Mitsubishi G3M Navy Type 96 Attack Bomber. It was very similar to the G3M2 Model 22, but was powered by two 1,300hp Kinsei 51 engines
The Kusho L3Y was a transport version of the Mitsubishi G3M 'Nell' Navy Type 96 attack bomber. It was produced in two versions, both of which emerged before the Japanese entry into the Second World War
The Kawasaki Ki-5 was an inverted gull-wing cantilever monoplane designed in 1933 in an attempt to produce a Japanese fighter equal to the Hawker Fury or the Boeing B-26A, and to replace the Nakajima Army Type 91 Fighter and the Kawasaki Army Type 92 Fighter.
The Kawasaki Ki-22 was one of three designs for a heavy bomber produced in response to a Japanese Army specification issued on 15 February 1936 but that never progressed beyond the design stage
The Kawasaki Ki-28 was a monoplane designed in response to a Japanese Army fighter specification issued in June 1935, but which failed to enter production.
The Kawasaki Ki-38 was an early version of the aircraft that would enter production as the Kawasaki Ki-45 Toryu (Nick) twin engined fighter.
The Mitsubishi Ki-18 was the designation given by the Japanese Army to a single A5M (Claude) carrier fighter that was evaluated for service with the Army.
The Mitsubishi Ki-33 was a version of the A5M Navy Type 96 carrier fighter submitted to the Japanese Army in response to a specification issued in June 1935.
The Mitsubishi Ki-69 was to have been an escort fighter based on the Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryu (Dinah).
The Mitsubishi Ki-73 was a design for a single-engined long range escort fighter, produced in response to a Japanese Army specification issued in May 1943.
The Mitsubishi Ki-97 was to have been a transport aircraft based on the Mitsubishi Ki-67 Hiryu (Dinah).
The Mitsubishi Ki-112 was a design project for a heavily armed fighter based on the Ki-67 Hiryu (Dinah).
The Nakajima Ki-11 was a low-wing monoplane designed to replace the Japanese Army’s Nakajima Army Type 91 Fighter and the Kawasaki Army Type 92 Fighter, but which lost out to the biplane Kawasaki Ki-10
The Nakajima Ki-12 was an experimental monoplane fighter aircraft produced in the early 1930s, and which gave Nakajima valuable experience that they used in the design of the Nakajima Ki-27 Army Type 97 Fighter.
The Nakajima Ki-58 was a long range escort fighter based on the Nakajima Ki-49 Donryu heavy bomber.
The Nakajima Ki-106 was a version of the Ki-84 Army Type 4 Fighter constructed with a wooden fuselage in an attempt to save light alloys
The Nakajima Ki-113 was a version of the Nakajima Ki-84 Army Type 4 fighter produced with a number of steel components in an attempt to reduce the demand for light alloys.
The Nakajima Ki-116 was the last variant of the Nakajima Ki-84 Army Type 4 fighter to reach the prototype stage.
The Nakajima Ki-117 was to have been a high altitude version of the Nakajima Ki-84 Army Type 4 fighter.
The Tachikawa Ki-72 was a design for an improved version of the Ki-36 Army Type 98 Direct Co-operation Plane.
The Japanese Army Air Force used three overlapping aircraft designation systems – the Type number, based on the year the aircraft was accepted, the Kitai, or airframe number, allocated while a project was under development, and a series of popular names adopted just after the start of the Pacific War.
Thursday, November 27, 2008
The Akagi (Red Castle) was the oldest of the six aircraft carriers that took part in the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, and as the flagship of the Vice Admiral Nagumo became the most famous of all the Japanese carriers.
The Kaga was the third aircraft carrier to be built for the Imperial Japanese Navy, and was constructed on a hull originally laid down as a 39,900t battleship.
The Ryujo was originally designed as an aircraft carrier that would be too small to count towards the total tonnage of aircraft carriers allowed to Japan under the terms of the Washington Naval Treaty.
The Soryu was the first Japanese fleet carrier to be built for that purpose from the keel up, and was the model for most Japanese carriers to follow.
TheHiryuwas a slightly larger and improved version of the aircraft carrier Soryu. Like the Soryu she was lightly built but fast and capable of operation a large air group
The two Shokaku class aircraft carriers were the first purpose built fleet carriers to be constructed in Japan after the Washington Naval Treaty expired, and are considered to have been the most effective Japanese aircraft carriers of the Second World War.
The Shokaku (Flying Heron) was the name ship of the Shokaku class of aircraft carriers, the best designed carriers to serve with the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Second World War.
The Zuikaku was the second member of the Shokaku class of aircraft carriers, the best carriers to see service with the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Second World War.
The small aircraft carrier Shoho and her sister ship the Zuiho were the result of a Japanese attempt to avoid the restrictions imposed on naval construction by the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922.
The Zuiho was a light carrier that resulted from a Japanese attempt to bypass the restrictions of the Washington Naval Treaty.
The Ryuho was the least successful of a series of Japanese aircraft carriers produced by modifying fleet auxiliary ships.
The two Junyo class aircraft carriers were originally laid down as the passenger liners Kashiwara Maru and Izumo Maru, which were funded by the Imperial Japanese Navy as part of a scheme to provide a number of ships that could easily be converted into aircraft carriers.
The Junyo was the name ship of the Junyo class of aircraft carriers, two slow medium sized fleet carriers that were built on hulls that had been laid down as large passenger liners, and was one of the small number of Japanese carriers to survive the Second World War.
The Hiyo was the second of two Junyo class aircraft carriers produced by modifying two semi-completed passenger liners.
The Taiho was the only purpose built Japanese fleet carrier constructed during the Second World War that was finished in time to take part in any of the great carrier battles.
The two aircraft carriers of the Chitose class were the last of a series of Japanese carriers produced by modifying existing auxiliaries, in this case two seaplane carriers built in the late 1930s.
The Unryo class of aircraft carriers was rushing into production in 1942 in an attempt to increase the wartime strength of the Japanese carrier fleet, but of the seventeen carriers ordered only six were laid down and the three that were completed arrived too late to take part in any carrier battle.
The Shinano was the largest and one of the shortest lived aircraft carriers to see service during the Second World War.
The three ships in the Taiyo class of aircraft carriers were part of the Imperial Japanese Navy’s shadow carrier programme, and had originally been laid down as passenger liners.
The Kaiyo was the smallest of a series of passenger liners converted into auxiliary aircraft carriers for the Imperial Japanese Navy.
The Shinyo was a Japanese escort carrier produced by converting the German passenger line Scharnhorst.
Sunday, November 23, 2008
The battle of the Kokoda Trail of 23 July-13 November 1942 saw the Japanese army reach further south than at any other time during the Second World War, in an attempt to capture Port Moresby, but also marked the point at which Japan’s resources became too stretched to support further offensive operations, and ended as a clear Australian victory.
The battle of Milne Bay (25 August-7 September 1942) was the first defeat suffered by Japanese land forces during the war in the Pacific, and prevented them from establishing a base at the eastern tip of New Guinea.
The battle of Goodenough Island, 22-24 October 1942, was a minor Allied victory during the build-up for the major offensive against the Japanese position at Buna, on the northern coast of Papua.
The battle of Gona, 19 November-9 December 1942, was one of three related battles that cleared the Japanese out of their beachheads at Gona, Sanananda and Buna on the northern coast of Papua.
The battle of Buna, 19 November 1942-2 January 1943, was one part of the Allied attack on the Japanese beach-head on the northern coast of Papua (along with the battles of Gona and Sanananda).
The battle of Sanananda, 19 November 1942-22 January 1943, was the longest of the three intertwined battles that saw the Allies eliminate the Japanese beachhead on the northern coast of Papua.
Operation Providence was an Allied plan to land troops at Buna, on the northern coast of Papua, in order to allow for the construction of an airfield that could be used against the Japanese positions at Lae and Salamaua.
General Edmund F. Herring (1893-1982) was an Australian general who had command of all front line American and Australian troops on New Guinea during the successful Allied offensive in Papua in the last quarter of 1942.
General Basil M. Morris (1888-1975) was the Australian commander at Port Moresby at the start of the Japanese advance along the Kokoda Trail, and played an important part in delaying the Japanese advance long enough for substantial reinforcements to reach Papua.
Robert L. Eichelberger was an American general who commanded the American forces during the battles for Buna and Gona on the northern coast of Papua New Guinea, before commanding I Corps of the Sixth Army during most of the campaign on New Guinea, and the US Eighth Army during the invasion of the Philippines.
General Tomitaro Horii (1890-1942) was the Japanese commander during the fighting along the Kokoda Trail in New Guinea.
Cyril A. Clowes was a senior Australian general responsible for the first Allied land victory over the Japanese, at Milne Bay (25 August-7 September 1942).
Thursday, November 13, 2008
The Douglas R5D was the US Navy’s version of the C-54 Skymaster, the military version of the DC-4 airliner.
The Douglas R3D was the Navy’s version of the commercially unsuccessful DC-5 short haul passenger transport.
The Douglas C-110 was the designation given to three DC-5 airliners after they were impressed into USAAF service during 1944.
The designation Douglas XC-112 was given to two different aircraft, one a proposed pressurized version of the C-54 and the other the first military DC-6.
The Douglas XC-114 was a lengthened and re-engined version of the C-54 Skymaster.
The Douglas XC-115 was to have been a version of the XC-114 powered by four 1,650 Packard V-1650-209 engines.
The single Douglas XC-116 was a sister to the XC-114, and like that aircraft was a version of the C-54 with a longer (100ft 7in compared to 93ft 10in) fuselage.
The Douglas C-47 Skytrain was the first fully militarised transport to be based on the DC-3 airliner, and was the first transport aircraft to be ordered in large numbers for the USAAF.
The Douglas C-47A Skytrain was produced in larger numbers than any other version of the C-47, and with 5,253 built represented nearly half of the total production run of 10,654 aircraft in the DC-3 family.
The Douglas C-47B was designed for high altitude operations on the “Hump” – the aerial route between India and China that for most of the Second World War was the only way for the Allies to get military supplies into China.
The Douglas XC-47C was a floatplane producing by fitting Edo Model 78 floats to a standard C-47.
The designation C-47D was given to a large number of C-47Bs that had their high altitude supercharger removed.
The Douglas EC-47N was an advanced electronic warfare version of the standard C-47A, developed in the mid 1960s for use in Vietnam.
The Douglas EC-47P was an electronic warfare version of the C-47D, developed for use during the Vietnam War.
The Douglas EC-47Q was the designation given to electronic warfare versions of the C-47 powered by the 1,290hp Pratt & Whitney R-2000-4 engine
The Douglas AC-47A gunship was developed in the early 1960s for use in anti-insurgency operations, and combined a long-standing aerial manoeuvre – the pylon turn – with the use of sideways firing weapons
The Douglas XCG-17 was an experiment cargo carrying glider produced by removing the engines from a standard C-47 Skytrain.
The Douglas C-53 Skytrooper was a dedicated troop transporter developed from the DC-3 airliner.
The designation Douglas C-117 was given to two very different versions of the DC-3, first to a more comfortable version of the basic C-53 and then to the Navy’s fleet of R4D-8 Super DC-3s.
The US Navy was the third biggest operator of military versions of the Douglas DC-3, after the USAAF and the RAF, and eventually received over 550 aircraft in seven main versions, giving them the designation R4D
The Douglas R4D-8 emerged from an unsuccessful attempt by Douglas to extend the commercial lifespan of the aging DC-3.
The Douglas Dakota I was the RAF designation for fifty three C-47s received under the lend-lease scheme.
The Douglas Dakota II was the RAF designation for nine C-53 Skytroopers received under the lend lease scheme.
The Douglas Dakota III was the RAF designation given to 962 C-47A Skytrains that were received under the lend-lease scheme.
The Douglas Dakota IV was the RAF designation for 896 C-47Bs received under the lend-lease scheme.
The L2D 'Tabby' was a version of the Douglas DC-3 built under licence in Japan, and which became the Japanese Navy's standard transport aircraft during the Second World War.
The Lisunov Li-2/PS-84 was a version of the Douglas DC-3 produced under licence in the Soviet Union.
The single Douglas C-41A was the only transport aircraft based on the DC-3 to be built for the US Army Air Corps, and was a VIP transport purchased for use as a staff and VIP transport.
The Douglas C-48 was the designation given to 36 Pratt & Whitney powered DC-3s impressed by the USAAF after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
The Douglas C-49 was the designation given to 138 Wright Cyclone powered DC-3s impressed by the USAAF after the American entry into the Second World War.
The designation Douglas C-50 was given to fourteen Wright Cyclone powered DC-3 airliners impressed off the production line by the USAAF after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
The Douglas C-51 was the designation given to a single Wright Cyclone powered DC-3 impressed directly from the production lines after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
The Douglas C-52 was the designation given to six Pratt & Whitney powered DC-3s impressed by the USAAF in the aftermath of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor
The designation Douglas C-68 was given to two Pratt and Whitney powered DC-3s impressed off the Douglas production line after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.
The Douglas C-84 was the designation given to four in-service DC-3s powered by Wright Cyclone engines and impressed by the USAAF during 1942.
Monday, November 10, 2008
The Douglas DC-2 was the production version of the DC-1, and helped to revolutionise the civil aviation industry in the mid 1930s.
The designation Douglas R2D-1 was given to the first DC-2s to enter US military service, serving as staff transport aircraft for the US Navy
The designation Douglas C-32 was given to one DC-2 purchased by the USAAC in 1936, and to twenty-four civilian DC-2 airliners that were impressed by the War Department after the start of the Second World War.
The Douglas C-33 was the first purpose-built military transport aircraft to be based on the Douglas DC-2, and was thus the ancestor of the thousands of C-47s, C-53s and Dakotas that would be built during the Second World War.
The Douglas C-34 was the designation given to two military versions of the DC-2 purchased for use by the Secretary of War.
The single Douglas C-38 was producing in an attempt to improve the stability of the DC-2/ C-33 series of aircraft.
The Douglas C-39 was a military transport aircraft that combined the fuselage and outer wings of the DC-2 with the centre wing section, engine nacelles and larger tail of the DC-3.
The Douglas C-41 was the designation given to a single transport aircraft based on the DC-2 and produced as a transport for the Chief of Staff of the Army Air Corps
Like the C-41 the Douglas C-42 was the designation given to a single transport aircraft similar to the C-39, with the fuselage of the DC-2 but the tail and wing centre section of the DC-3.
Sunday, November 09, 2008
The battle of Thermopylae of 191 B.C. ended the Greek phase of the war between Rome and the Seleucid emperor Antiochus III, and saw Antiochus expelled from Greece
The battle of Corycus of 191 B.C. was the first naval battle of the war between Rome and Antiochus III, and saw the Romans and their allies begin to win control of the Aegean Sea.
The battle of Eurymedon (or Side) of 190 B.C. was one of two naval battles that marked a turning point in that years fighting in the war between Rome and Antiochus III.
The battle of Myonnesus was the decisive naval battle of the War between Rome and Antiochus III, and saw a combined Roman and Rhodian fleet defeat Antiochus’ main surviving fleet.
The battle of Magnesia, in the winter of 190 B.C., saw a badly outnumbered Roman army defeat the army of the Seleucid Emperor Antiochus III (the Great), forever altering the balance of power in the eastern Mediterranean.
The peace of Apamea of 188 B.C. ended the war between Rome and Antiochus III, and also ended any chance that the Seleucid Empire might ever reclaim its lands in Asia Minor.
Thursday, November 06, 2008
The battle of Chios of 201 B.C. was the first of two naval battles fought by Philip V of Macedonia off the coast of Asia Minor during 201.
The battle of Lade was the second of two naval battles fought by Philip V of Macedonia during 201 BC.
The siege of Abydos of 200 B.C. was one of the final of a series of conquests made by Philip V of Macedonia around the Aegean that helped trigger the Second Macedonian War (against Rome).
The battle of the Aous (probable date 24 June 198 BC) was the first significant Roman victory during the Second Macedonian War.
The battle of Cynoscephalea of 197 B.C. was the decisive battle of the First Macedonian War, and was the first of a series of victories won by Roman legions over the Greek phalanx that ended three centuries of Greek dominance on the battlefield.
The battle of Mantinea of 207 BC was the most significant battle of the First Macedonian War, although it involved none of the main participants in that war.
The peace of Phoenice of 205 ended the fighting in the First Macedonian War (215-205 BC).
The Second Illyrian War (219 BC) was a short campaign in which the Romans restored the balance of power they had created at the end of the First Illyrian War, ten years earlier.
The Vickers Victoria was a troop transport developed alongside the Vickers Virginia bomber, and which shared many design elements with that aircraft.
The Vickers Valentia was the name given to a strengthened version of the Vickers Victoria troop transport, powered by two Pegasus engines.
Sunday, November 02, 2008
The Blackburn Dart was the production version of the Swift torpedo bomber, a private venture aircraft built in 1920.
The Blackburn Velos was a two-seater floatplane torpedo bomber based on the Blackburn Dart that was built for the Greek navy in the late 1920s.
The Blackburn Ripon was the second in a series of Blackburn biplane torpedo bombers that equipped the Fleet Air Arm in the interwar years.
The Blackburn Baffin was a radial powered version of the Blackburn Ripon torpedo bomber.
The Blackburn Shark was the last in a series of Blackburn produced biplane torpedo bombers that equipped the Fleet Air Arm in the interwar years.
The Blackburn Firebrand demonstrates the difficulties encountered by many aircraft manufacturers when developing new aircraft during the Second World War. When work began on the Firebrand in the spring of 1939 it was seen as a short-ranged two-man fleet interceptor, but ever-changing requirements meant that by the time it entered service in September 1945 it was a single seat torpedo-armed strike aircraft.
The Blackburn Roc was the Royal Navy’s equivalent to the Boulton Paul Defiant, and was a turret armed fighter aircraft developed just before the Second World War, and which proved to be ineffective in combat.
The Fairey Barracuda was a monoplane torpedo bomber designed in the late 1930s to replace the biplane Albacores and Swordfish. The Barracuda didn’t enter service until 1943, but it soon became a mainstay of the Fleet Air Arm, operating in home waters, the Mediterranean and the Far East.
Thursday, October 30, 2008
The Short Singapore was the oldest of a group of biplane flying boats still in RAF service at the start of the Second World War, although the last squadrons to use it replaced their aircraft before entering combat.
The Supermarine Seamew was a biplane amphibian designed to satisfy Air Ministry specification 29/24, but which had a low priority at Supermarine and never entered service.
The Supermarine Sea Otter was designed as the replacement for the Walrus, but although the first aircraft made its maiden flight in September 1938 Supermarine was busy with the far more important Spitfire programme, and only a small number of Sea Otters saw active service late in the Second World War
The Supermarine Walrus was one of the unsung workhorses of the Fleet Air Arm and RAF during the Second World War, operating as a fleet spotter and air sea rescue aircraft and fighting in just about every theatre of the war.
Wednesday, October 29, 2008
The Supermarine Scapa was an improved version of the Southampton flying boat, developed after Supermarine was taken over by Vickers, and using technology developed for the Schneider races.
The Supermarine Stranraer was the last of a series of large biplane flying boats designed by Reginald Mitchell, and was essentially a larger version of the Supermarine Scapa, itself an improved version of the earlier Southampton.
The Saro Lerwick flying boat was one of the least successful aircraft to serve with the RAF during the Second World War, and demonstrated the danger of ordering a new design off the drawing board.
The Short Sunderland Mk I entered service in 1938, and was one of the few modern aircraft available to Coastal Command at the start of the Second World War.
The Short Sunderland II was introduced in 1941, and was the first version of the aircraft to carry ASV radar.
The Short Sunderland III was produced in larger numbers than any other version of the aircraft, accounting for 463 of the total of 749 Sunderlands that were built.
The Short Seaford was originally developed as the Sunderland Mk IV, and was an attempt to use the Bristol Hercules engines of the Short Stirling on the Sunderland.
The final version of the Sunderland to enter service was the Sunderland V, which remained in use in the RAF from early in 1945 until 1959.
The Percival Proctor was a radio-trainer and communication aircraft, developed from the Percival Vega Gull, and produced in large numbers during the Second World War.
The Northrop N-3PB floatplane patrol-bomber was the first aircraft to be produced by the independent Northrop Aircraft Inc after its foundation in 1939
The Avro Rota was the name given to twelve Cierva C.30A autogiros built under licence for the RAF by Avro during 1934-35.
The de Havilland D.H.91 Albatross was a pre-war passenger aircraft produced in very small numbers, and which served as a transport aircraft during the Second World War.
Friday, October 24, 2008
The Vickers Type 253 general purpose biplane was the first aircraft to use the geodetic construction method devised by Barnes Wallis, and made famous on the Wellington bomber.
The Vickers Wellesley was the first aircraft built entirely using Barnes Wallis’s geodesic construction method to enter service, and is best known for establishing a new world distance record in 1938.
The Vickers Warwick was one of many examples of promising aircraft whose development was delayed by the choice of engines. It was originally designed as a twin-engined heavy bomber, and like the Avro Manchester was to use the Rolls Royce Vulture.
Thursday, October 23, 2008
The Vickers Venture was an improved version of the Vixen II, designed to act as reconnaissance aircraft in an army-cooperation role.
The Vickers Vespa was designed as an army co-operation and reconnaissance aircraft, to replace the First World War-era Bristol Fighter. None were ordered by the RAF, but the Vespa was sold in small numbers to Bolivia and the Irish Free State, while the original prototype, in a greatly modified form, broke the World Height Record in September 1942
The Vickers Vildebeest was a land based biplane torpedo bomber, designed in the late 1920s to defend the British coast, but which was still the only torpedo bomber available to Coastal Command at the start of the Second World War.
Thursday, October 09, 2008
Wednesday, October 08, 2008
The Huff-Daland XHB-1 Cyclops was the only one of the three entries in the Army Air Corps’ Heavy Bomber sequence to actually be produced, and was a modified and expanded version of the Huff-Daland LB-1.
The Huff-Daland XHB-3 was a mid-1920s design for a twin-engine monoplane heavy bomber, and was the final entry in the US Army Air Corps’s short-lived Heavy Bombardment series.
The Huff-Daland LB-1 was the first in a long series of bombers better known as the Keystone bombers (after a change of company name).
The Huff-Daland XLB-3 was one of three attempts to turn the same company’s single engined LB-1 into a twin engined aircraft.
The Huff-Daland XLB-5 was the second attempt to produce a twin-engined version of the company’s LB-1 light bomber, coming between the Huff-Daland XLB-3 and the Keystone XLB-3A.
On 8 March 1927 the new owners of Huff-Daland renamed the company as the Keystone Aircraft Corporation. Over its brief five year existence Keystone would produce nearly 200 bombers for the Army Air Corps, and the Keystone Bomber was the standard American bomber during the early 1930s
The Keystone XB-1 Super Cyclops was the first aircraft in the “B” category for US Army bombers, and was an experimental bomber notable for the inclusion of two rear-firing gun positions at the back of the two engine nacelles.
The Keystone XLB-3A was the third attempt to produce a twin-engined version of the Huff-Daland LB-1 light bomber.
The Keystone LB-5 was the first of the series of twin-engine biplane bombers developed from the single-engined Huff-Daland LB-1 to enter service with the US Army Air Corps
The Keystone LB-6 was a modified version of the LB-5 twin-engined biplane light bomber, with larger wings, a longer fuselage and new engines.
The Keystone LB-7 was the highest numbered entry in the US Army Air Corps Light Bomber series to enter production, although the 18 aircraft ordered were actually built before the very similar LB-6.
The Keystone LB-8 was the designation given to the seventeenth LB-7 light bomber after it was given Pratt & Whitney R-1860-3 radial engines.
The Keystone LB-9 was the designation given to the last LB-7 after it was re-engined with geared Wright Cyclone
The Keystone LB-10 was the direct predecessor of the Keystone B-3A Panther and the series of biplane bombers that followed, and was the last entry in the LB Light Bomber series to be ordered into productionengines.
The Keystone LB-11 was the designation given to the second-to-last LB-6 while it was being used as an engine test-bed.
The Keystone XLB-12 was the designation given to the first LB-7 light bomber after it had been re-engined with Pratt & Whitney R-1860-1 radial engines.
The Keystone LB-13 was the designation given to seven Keystone bombers that were originally to be powered by geared Pratt & Whitney R-1690-3 radial engines.
The Keystone LB-14 was a short-lived designation given to a version of the LB-10A light bomber that was to be powered by Pratt & Whitney GR-1860 radial engines.
The Keystone B-3A Panther was the fourth version of the Keystone bomber to be produced in significant numbers, and the first to receive a designation in the new B (bombardment) sequence, adopted by the Army Air Corps in 1926.
The Keystone B-4A Panther was ordered alongside the B-6A, and together they were the last biplane bombers to enter American service.
The Keystone B-5A Panther was a twin-engined biplane bomber produced in 1930 by equipping the last 27 B-3A Panthers with Wright engines.
The Keystone B-6A Panther was the final development in a series of bombers descended from the Keystone LB-5, and was the last biplane bomber to enter US Army service.
The Atlantic XHB-2 was a large twin-engine monoplane bomber designed by Antony Fokker’s American subsidiary Atlantic Aircraft.
Monday, October 06, 2008
The Curtiss XA-4 was a single A-3 attack aircraft modified to test the 440hp Pratt & Whitney Wasp radial engine.
The Curtiss A-8 Shrike was a ground attack aircraft developed for the US Army Air Corps and which would eventually enter service as the A-12
The Curtiss YA-10 was the designation given to the first YA-8 Shrike when it was given a Pratt & Whitney Hornet air-cooled radial engine.
The Curtiss A-12 Shrike was a ground attack aircraft produced for the US Army Air Corps in 1934.
The Curtiss XA-14 Shrike was a two-man twin-engined ground attack aircraft designed in 1934 for the US Army Air Corps.
The Curtiss A-18 Shrike was the service-test version of the XA-14 twin-engined ground attack aircraft.
The Curtiss XA-43 was a design for a twin-engined attack aircraft proposed in 1945 as the Model 29, but which eventually flew as the XF-87 Blackhawk
The Northrop XA-13 was the first of a series of attack aircraft based on the Northrop Gamma, one of the first aircraft produced by the newly founded Northrop Corporation in 1932
The Northrop XA-16 was the designation given to the XA-13 after it was given a different engine in an attempt to imrpove visibility.
The Northrop A-17 was the standard US Army Air Corps attack aircraft during the second half of the 1930s.
The Douglas A-33 was the designation given to thirty-one Douglas 8A-5s that had been ordered by the Norwegian government in 1940, but were taken over by the US Army Air Force after the German invasion of Norway
Friday, October 03, 2008
The Sopwith 9700 Type 1 ½ Strutter was a single-seat bomber version of the standard two-seat 1 ½ Strutter fighter-reconnaissance aircraft, produced for the RNAS and intended to operate as a strategic bomber
The Sopwith Ship Strutter was a version of the 1 ½ Strutter designed to be launched from platforms installed on top of the main gun turrets of battleships and battle cruisers.
A. V. Roe and Company, better known simply as Avro, was one of the most famous of all British aircraft manufacturers, best known for the iconic Avro Lancaster bomber. Originally founded in 1910 by the aircraft pioneer Alliot Verdon Roe, by the time the Lancaster appeared the company was part of the Hawker Siddeley Group, while Roe himself had moved on to form Saunders-Roe Ltd.
Saunders-Roe was formed in 1928 when Sir Alliot Verdon Roe, the founder of Avro, purchased S. E. Saunders Ltd, a builder of amphibious aircraft based on the Isle of Wight.
The Sopwith Aviation Company was founded in 1912 by Thomas Octave Murdoch Sopwith, already a noted pioneer pilot, and in the Sopwith Camel produced the most famous British fighter of the First World War.
No.41 Squadron operated the Supermarine Spitfire for the entire duration of the Second World War, taking part in the fighting over Dunkirk, the Battle of Britain and flying sweeps over occupied France before moving to Europe to join the Second Tactical Air Force.
No.42 Squadron began the Second World War as a torpedo bomber squadron equipped with the obsolete Vickers Vildebeest, and performed that role for the first half of the war. It then briefly operated in the Mediterranean at the time of the battle of El Alamein, before moving on to Burma, where it spent the remaining years of the war operating as a fighter bomber squadron.
No.43 Squadron fought as a Hurricane squadron during the Battle of Britain and in Operation Torch, then as a Spitfire squadron in North Africa and Italy.
Friday, September 19, 2008
The various versions of the T-34 have been known by at least three different designation systems in English language publications
The T-34-85 Medium Tank was the main Soviet tank in the last year of the Second World War, and was the only significantly improved version of the basic T-34 to enter production during the war.
The T-34 Medium Tank was built at seven different factories during the Second World War, starting with Factory 183 at Kharkov and the Stalingrad Tractor Factory, both of which would fall to the Germans during the war
The OT-34 was the designation given to over 1,500 T-34 Medium Tanks armed with a flamethrower in the hull.
The SU-85 was a Soviet tank destroyer based on the SU-122 assault gun, which was itself built on the chassis of the T-34 Medium Tank.
The SU-100 was a Soviet tank destroyer developed as an up-gunned version of the SU-85 after the 85mm gun used in that vehicle was installed in the T-34-85.
No.29 Squadron spent most of the Second World War operating as a night fighter squadron, taking part in some of the earliest experiments with airborne radar before converting to the Beaufighter and then the Mosquito.
No.30 Squadron began the Second World War as a Blenheim bomber squadron based in Egypt, but went on serve as a fighter squadron in Egypt, Greece, on Crete and in the Far East, ending the war operating with Thunderbolt fighter bombers over Burma.
No. 31 Squadron spent the entire Second World War operating as a transport squadron, based in India.
No. 32 Squadron was one of the most successful Hurricane squadrons of the Battle of Britain, and was credited with 102 victories in the first half of the battle. It then moved to the Mediterranean, taking part in Operation Torch, the invasion of Italy and the liberation of Greece.
No.33 Squadron began the Second World War operating the Gloster Gladiator in the Western Desert, fought in Greece and on Crete, then fought against Rommel during the see-saw battles that ended with the victory at El Alamein, before returning to Britain to take part in the D-Day landings and the campaign in Western Europe.
No. 34 Squadron went through two incarnations during the Second World War, first as a Blenheim squadron based in Singapore, before reforming in India after the Japanese entry into the war. The squadron ended the war as a fighter bomber squadron, operating over Burma
Saturday, September 13, 2008
The OT-130 was a second flamethrower tank based on the T-26 light tank, this time using the single turreted T-26 Model 1933
The OT-133 was the third of a series of flame thrower tanks based on the T-26 light tank, and was built around the improved T-26S
The OT-134 was the fourth and final entry in a series of flame throwers based on the T-26 light tank, and was the first to carry any other armament
Thursday, September 11, 2008
The T-46 Light Tank was developed in an attempt to improve the mobility of the T-26, the most numerous Soviet tank from the mid 1930s until the German invasion of 1941.
The T-25 Light Tank was a second attempt to improve the mobility of the T-26 light tank by installing Christie suspension
The Panther I Ausf D was the first production version of the Panther medium tank, and was rushed into combat only a year after the design was first approved.
The Panther I Ausf A was the second production version of the Panther medium tank, and was very similar to late production Ausf Ds.
The Panther I Ausf G was the final version of the Panther to enter production during the Second World War, and was produced in larger numbers than the previous two versions combined.
The Panther I Ausf F was the final version of the Panther medium tank to be developed, featured a new type of turret, and was on the verge of entering production at the end of the Second World War
The Panzerbefehlswagen Panther Sd Kfz 267 was a very successful command tank based on the standard Panther I
The Panzerbefehlswagen Panther Sd Kfz 268 “Flivo” was the less common of the two types of command tank based on the Panther, and was designed to operate as an air to ground liaison officer
The Panzerbeobachtungswagen Panther was an artillery fire direction vehicle based on the Panther and designed to operate with the armoured artillery
The Panther II was developed during 1943 as a potential replacement for the Panther I, but never progressed beyond the prototype stage.
The Jagdpanther was the most powerful of a series of tank destroyers produced in Germany during the Second World War, carrying the same gun as the Jagdtiger, but on a vehicle 24 tons lighter, 91cm/ 3 feet shorter and 8km/hr fasterThe Bergepanther or Panzer-Bergegerät (Panther I) was a tank recovery vehicle based on the Panther medium tank, and produced to solve a problem caused by the ever-increasing weight of German tanks. The Panther Ostwallturm was a fixed fortification based around the turret from the Panther medium tank.
Saturday, September 06, 2008
The Douglas Havoc I (Pandora) was a particularly unusual weapon which demonstrated the urgent need for any weapon capable of dealing with the threat from German night bombers during the Blitz.
The Douglas Havoc I (Night Fighter) was one of a series attempts to make use of the relatively large number of French DB-7s which arrived in Britain after the collapse of France in June 1940
The Douglas Havoc I (Intruder) was designed to operate as a night time intruder over occupied Europe, and was produced by modifying late production French DB-7s
The Douglas Havoc II (Night Fighter) was produced by installed a new solid nose carrying twelve guns to 100 French DB-7As which reached Britain after the collapse of France
The Douglas Boston I was the designation given to 20 Douglas DB-7 bombers originally ordered by France, but that entered service with the RAF
The Douglas Boston II was the British designation for late production French DB-7s, powered by the Pratt & Whitney R-1830-S3C4-G Twin Wasp with a two-speed supercharger.
The Douglas Boston III was the most important version of that aircraft in RAF service, with a total of 768-771 aircraft produced. It was also the first British version to be actually be used as a bomber, and the first version to have come from the original British order for the Douglas DB-7B
The Douglas Boston IV was the British version of the glass-nosed A-20J Havoc.
The Douglas Boston V was the RAF designation for the glass-nosed A-20K Havoc, and was the final version of the aircraft to see service with the RAF
The Douglas A-20 Havoc may not be one of the best known bombers of the Second World War, but it was used by seven Bombardment Groups, fought in the south west Pacific, took part in the invasions of North Africa, Italy, France and Germany, and remained in service until the end of the war
The Douglas A-20 was the first version of the Havoc to be ordered by the US Army Air Corps.
The Douglas A-20A was similar to the original A-20, but without the turbo-superchargers used on the earlier version of the Havoc
The Douglas A-20B was the first version of the Havoc to be produced in large numbers for the USAAF, but it lacked self-sealing fuel tanks and did not have enough armour.
The Douglas A-20C was originally produced for export to Britain and the Soviet Union under lend-lease, but a large number were retained in the United States after Pearl Harbor
The Douglas A-20D was the designation given to a lightened version of the Havoc that would have been powered by turbo-supercharged R-2600-7 engines.
The Douglas A-20E designation was given to a small number of Havocs used for experiments with lightened fuselages
The Douglas A-20F was the designation given to a version of the Havoc armed with a large 37mm gun in the nose, built on a modified A-20A chassis
The Douglas A-20G saw the biggest change to the design of the Havoc with the replacement of the glass bombardier’s nose by a solid nose carrying six forward firing guns.
The Douglas A-20H was a minor variation on the A-20G, the first solid-nosed version of the Havoc.
The Douglas A-20J saw the reintroduction of the glass bombardier’s nose, replaced on the A-20G by a solid gun nose
The Douglas A-20K was a glass-nosed “lead ship” produced to work alongside the solid nosed A-20H
At the start of the Second World War the US Army Air Corps lacked a modern radar equipped night fighter, and so it was decided to copy the RAF and convert a number of Douglas A-20s into P-70 Nighthawks night fighters.
The Douglas BD was the US Navy designation for nine A-20 Havocs, used as high speed target tugs
Forty nine Douglas A-20 Havocs were converted to act as photo-reconnaissance aircraft, under the designation Douglas F-3
Tuesday, September 02, 2008
The Martin Maryland was a light bomber originally developed to satisfy a US army specification and which entered British service after the fall of France.
The Martin Baltimore was a light bomber developed by the Glenn L. Martin Company from its Model 167 Maryland to satisfy a British specification.
We provide a list of squadrons that used the Martin Baltimore light bomber
The Martin Baltimore I was a light bomber developed from the earlier Maryland by increasing the width and depth of the fuselage and installing more powerful engines and more guns.
The Martin Baltimore II differed from the Mk I only in that it was delivered with two 0.30in Browning machine guns in the rear dorsal position in place of the single gun of the Mk. I
The biggest problem with the earlier versions of the Martin Baltimore had been the poor rear guns – two hand operated Vickers “K” guns which proved to be difficult to use in combat – and so the Baltimore III was equipped with a powered gun turret
The Martin Baltimore IIIA was the first version of the aircraft to be provided under lend-lease, and was armed with a different turret to the Baltimore III.
The Baltimore IV was very similar to the Baltimore IIIA, differing only in some internal equipment.
The Baltimore V was the final version of the aircraft to be produced, and differed from the earlier versions in using more powerful Wright R-2600-29 Cyclone engines.
Monday, September 01, 2008
The Consolidated PBY Catalina was the main long range reconnaissance aircraft in use with the US Navy in the first half of the Second World War. We now add articles on the development of the PBY Catalina, the combat career of the Consolidated PBY Catalina with the US Navy and with the RAF, and lists of US Navy PBY Squadrons and RAF Catalina Squadrons that used the aircraft.
Canada developed a very sizable aircraft industry during the Second World War, and one of the aircraft it produced in large numbers was the Consolidated Catalina.
The Consolidated PBY-1 was the first production version of the Consolidated Catalina, which would be produced in far larger numbers than any other flying boat
The Consolidated PBY-2 was the second production version of the Catalina flying boat, and was very similar to the PBY-1, the main differences being on the tail.
The Consolidated PBY-3 differed from the previous version of the Catalina in having more powerful 900hp R-1830-66 Twin Wasp engines in place of the 850hp engines used on the PBY-2.
The Consolidated PBY-4 was the last of the early versions of the Catalina fly boat, each of which was ordered in small numbers in the period before the Second World War.
The Consolidated PBY-5 was the first version of the Catalina to be produced in large numbers, and the last to be a pure flying boat, and yet at the start of 1939 it had looked as if the PBY-4 was to be the final production version of the aircraft.
The Consolidated PBY-5A was the first version of the Catalina to be equipped with wheeled landing gear, turning it from a pure flying boat into an amphibian, capable of operating from sea and land bases.
The Consolidated PBY-6A was the last production version of the Catalina amphibian, and combined the features introduced during the production run of the PBY-5A with the new tail designed for the PBN-1 Nomad
The Consolidated OA-10 was the USAAF’s designation for the Catalina flying boat, used by the air force for air-sea rescue duties in the vast expanses of the Pacific.
The Naval Aircraft Factory PBN-1 Nomad was an improved version of the Consolidated Catalina, produced by the same facility that had produced the design for the XPY-1, the first flying boat to be produced by Consolidated and a direct ancestor of the Catalina.
Sunday, August 31, 2008
The Consolidated P2Y was the second flying boat to be designed by Consolidated for the US Navy, and the first to be produced by the same company.
Monday, August 25, 2008
The Type 1 Chi-He (medium sixth) Medium Tank was an improved version of the Type 97 Chi-ha, the most numerous Japanese medium tank of the Second World War, but the generally low priority give to tank development during the war meant that only 170 were built
The Type 3 Chi-Nu (medium tenth) was the last tank to be developed from the Chi-Ha medium tank, and combined the improved chassis of the Type 1 Chi-Ne with a large turret carrying a 75mm tank gun.
The Type 4 Chi-To medium tank was the most powerful Japanese tank built during the Second World War, but by the time the war ended only two had been completed.
The Type 5 Chi-Ri (medium ninth) tank was the last medium tank to be developed in Japan during the Second World War, although no complete examples were actually built.
The Type 1 Ho-Ni I was a self-propelled gun produced by fitting a 75mm Type 90 field gun on the chassis of the main Japanese medium tank of the Second World War, the Type 97 Chi-Ha
The Type 1 Ho-Ni II was a Japanese self propelled gun produced by mounting a 105mm Type 91 Howitzer on the chassis of a Type 97 Chi-Ha medium tank
The Type 2 Ho-I gun tank was designed to provide Japanese tank regiments with a close support weapon to fight alongside the improved Chi-ha medium tanks
The Type 3 Ho-Ni III was a Japanese tank destroyer and self-propelled gun produced by mounting a 75mm gun on the chassis of the Type 97 Chi-Ha medium tank.
Sunday, August 24, 2008
The Type 91 Heavy Tank was one of a series of experimental multi-turreted heavy tanks designed in Japan between 1925 and the end of the 1930s, none of which entered production.
The Type 95 Heavy Tank was the last entry in a series of multi-turreted tanks developed in Japan between 1925 and the late 1930s, none of which entered production.
The Type 92 Jyu-Sokosha/ Kei Sensha/ Cavalry Tank was one of the first Japanese designed tanks to enter production. It had a good top speed, but was so poorly armoured that it was virtually useless in combat.
The Type 94 tankette was produced in larger numbers than any other Japanese armoured vehicle of the 1930s. Although it was originally designed to act as an armoured supply transporter, it was often used in combat as a miniature tank.
The Type 89 Yi-Go or Chi-Ro medium tank was the most important Japanese medium tank of the 1930s, and was the first at least partly Japanese-designed tank to be accepted by the Imperial Japanese Army
The Type 97 Tankette was an improved version of the earlier Type 94 Tankette, itself the most numerous Japanese armoured vehicle of the 1930s.
The Type 95 Ha-Go light tank was the most numerous Japanese tank produced during the Second World War.
The Type 98 Light Tank was designed during 1938 to replace the Type 95 Ha-Go light tank, but despite being a superior design it did not enter full production until 1942, and never appeared in large numbers
The Type 2 Ke-To light tank (Japan) was an improved version of the Type 98 light tank, carrying a modified gun turret.
The Type 3 Ke-Ri light tank was an experimental Japanese design which matched the chassis of the standard Type 95 Ha-go light tank with a 57mm gun
The Type 4 Ke-Nu light tank combined the chassis of the standard Japanese Type 95 light tank with turrets that had been removed from the original version of the Type 97 Chi-ha medium tank.
Friday, August 08, 2008
Wednesday, August 06, 2008
The Sturmhaubitze or StuH was a version of the StuG assault gun, armed with a 105mm light field howitzer
The Hornisse (hornet) or Nashorn (Rhino) was a lightly armoured self-propelled mount for the 8.8cm Pak43 anti-tank gun using the same hybrid gun carriage based on elements of the Panzer III and Panzer IV as the Hummel, and differed from that vehicle mainly in the choice of its gun.
The Jagdtiger, or Jagdpanzer VI, was a tank destroyer based on the Tiger II, and was a good example of the gigantism so common in Germany towards the end of the Second World War.
The Tiger-Mörser or Sturmmörser was a self propelled armoured mount for the breach loading rocket firing 38cm Raketenwerfer 61 L/54.
Tuesday, August 05, 2008
The Wirbelwind (Whirlwind) was the second production vehicle to mount an anti-aircraft gun on the chassis of the Panzer IV tank.
The Zerstörer 45 was a more powerful version of the Wirbelwind Flakpanzer, designed to compensate for the relatively low power of the quadruple 2cm guns used in the earlier vehicle.
The Ostwind I (East Wind) was the last of a series of Flakpanzers (anti-aircraft tanks) based on the Panzer IV chassis to enter production, albeit in very small numbers
The Ostwind II was a further development of the Ostwind I Flakpanzer, which would have carried twice the firepower, but that never progressed beyond the prototype stage.
The “Kugelblitz” (Ball lightning) Flakpanzer would have been the most advanced anti-aircraft tank produced by Germany during the Second World War if it had ever entered production, but the first prototypes did not appear until 1945, and it never entered combat
The Panzer IV/70 (A) was intended to be an interim design, designed to speed up the introduction of a version of the Jagdpanzer armed with a 7.5cm PaK42 L/70 main gun.
The Panzer IV/70 (V) was an improved version of the Jagdpanzer IV, armed with a Pak42 L/70 gun in place of the shorter gun used on the earlier vehicle.
The Hummel was a fully tracked lightly armoured mount for the 15cm heavy field howitzer, and was designed to provide artillery support for the Panzer divisions.